8 Baobab St, Runda Evergreen, Nairobi, Kenya

+254  768-608-716

DOB: April 10, 1942

Marital Status: Married 3x; Divorced 3x; no children


1976 Boston University Psychological Counselor Training

1970 Portland Metropolitan Police Academy Oregon Police Officer Certification

1969 Harvard University Ph.D. Philosophy

1967 Harvard University M.A. Philosophy

1963 Brandeis University B.A. Philosophy/American Civilization



2003- -- Research Associate, Agnes Scott College

2004 Consultant, State University System of Georgia

2001-03 Distinguished Chair in Ethics, U.S. Naval Academy

2000-01 Research Scholar, University of California, Irvine

1999-00 Research Specialist & Lecturer, University of California, Irvine

1984-99 President, AGREE Co

1995 Lecturer, California State University at Chico

1989-94 Associate Professor, Long Beach State

1983-84 Visiting Associate Professor, University of Houston

1977-83 Associate Professor, Carnegie Mellon University

1977 Visiting Associate Professor, University of Houston

1976 Visiting Associate Professor, University of Cincinnati

1975-77 Researcher/Therapist, Boston State (mental) Hospital

1974-75 Visiting Assistant Professor, Tufts University

1973-74 Guggenheim Fellow

1972 Lecturer, Downstate Medical Center

1971-73 Research Assistant Professor, CUNY Graduate Center

1971 Visiting Assistant Professor, University of Oregon

1969-70 Deputy Sheriff, Multnomah County (Portland, OR)

1968-69 Lecturer, Portland State University

1965 Teacher, Le Moyne College (Memphis, TN) [Summer]

1964-68 Teaching Fellow, Harvard University



1998 American Philosophical Association Rockefeller Prize

1994 National Endowment for the Humanities Study Grant

1991 CSULB Center of International Education Award for Curricular Development

1987 United States Patent Des 291,155

1978 Carnegie Mellon University Falk Grant

1973 Guggenheim Fellowship

1973 National Endowment for the Humanities Fellowship (declined)

1969 Harvard University Carrier Prize for Outstanding Philosophy Doctoral Dissertation

1967 Kent Fellowship (Danforth Foundation)

1966 New York State Regents Fellowship

1964/5 Harvard University Graduate Scholarship



2010 Empowering Our Military Conscience: Transforming Just War Theory and Military Moral Education, ed., Ashgate

2002 Ethics for Naval Leaders, 5th ed, Pearson, co-edited with USNA Ethics Section

1972 The Significance of Sense: Meaning, Modality & Morality, Cornell



2015 "Jus Ante Bellum: Principles of Prewar Conduct" in G. Lucas, ed., Routledge Handbook of Military Ethics, Routledge, 54-68

2010 “The Moral Singularity of Military Professionalism” in R. Wertheimer, ed., Empowering Our Military Conscience, Ashgate, 133-158

2010 “The Morality of Military Ethics Education” in R. Wertheimer, ed., Empowering Our Military Conscience, Ashgate, 159-196.

2008 "The Paradox of Translation," in B.Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk & M.Thelen, eds., Translation and Meaning, Hogeschool Zuyd, 95-106

2007 "The Relevance of Speciesism to Life Sciences Practices," in Fred Adams, ed., Ethics and the Life Sciences, Philosophy Document Center

2007 "Reconnoitering Combatant Moral Equality," Journal of Military Ethics, Jan. (6, 1) 60-74.

2000 "The Synonymy Antinomy," A. Kanamori, ed., Proceedings of the 20th World Congress of Philosophy, Vol VI: Analytic Philosophy & Logic, Philosophy Document Center, 1-21

1999 "Identity Syntax," Tom Rockmore, ed., Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy, Vol II: Metaphysics, Philosophy Documentation Center, 171-86

1999 "Translation, Quotation, and Truth," The Paideia Archive, 20th World Congress of Philosophy Website,

1999 "How Mathematics Isn't Logic," Ratio, September (12, 3), 279-95

1999 "Quotation Apposition," in The Philosophical Quarterly, Oct. (49, 197), 514-519

1988 "Applying Ethical Theory: Caveats from a Case Study," in D. Rosenthal & F. Shehadi, eds., Applied Ethics and Ethical Theory, Utah, 229-55

1998 "Identity: Logic, Ontology, Epistemology," in Philosophy, April (73), 179-93

1998 "Constraining Condemning," in Ethics, April (108, 3), 489-501

1994 "Synonymy Without Analyticity," in International Philosophical Preprint Exchange, Nov, 60 pp

1993 "Socratic Scepticism," in Metaphilosophy, Oct. (24,4), 344-62

     REPRINTED in: 1993 E. Winkler & J. Kuhns, eds., Applied Ethics, Blackwell

1991 "Preferring Punishment Over Provisions for Victims," in D. Sanks & D. Caplan, eds., To Be a Victim, Plenum Publishing, 409-21

1984 "Understanding Blackmun's Argument: The Reasoning in Roe v. Wade," in J. Garfield &  P. Hennessey, eds., Abortion: Moral & Legal Perspectives, Massachusetts, 195-204

1983 "Understanding Retribution," in Criminal Justice Ethics, Summer/Fall (2,2), 19-38

1982 "Regulating Police Use of Deadly Force," in N. Bowie & F. Elliston, eds., Ethics, Public Policy and Criminal Justice, Oelgeschalger, Gunn & Hain, 93-109

1978 "ERRATA: A Reply to Abbott," in Political Theory, August (6,3), 337-44

1975 "Are the Police Necessary?," in E. Viano & J. Reiman, eds., The Police in Society, D.C. Heath, 49-60

1974 "Philosophy on Humanity," in R. L. Perkins, ed., Abortion: Pro and Con, Schenkman, 107-28 REPRINTED in: 1977 E. Manier, et. al., eds., Abortion, Notre Dame, 117-136.

1971 "Understanding the Abortion Argument," in Philosophy & Public Affairs, Fall (I,1), 67-95

     REPRINTED in:

          1972 J. Rachels & F. Tillman, eds.,Philosophical Issues, Harper & Row

          1973 J. Feinberg, ed., The Problem of Abortion, Wadsworth

          1974 M.Cohen,, eds., The Rights and Wrongs of Abortion, Princeton

           1974 U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Constitutional Amendments, Hearings on S.J. Res 130, Y4.J89/2:Ab7/Pt.1 (627-655)

           1975 J. Rachels, ed., Moral Problems, Harper & Row, 2nd ed.

           1980 C. Reid, ed., Choice and Action, Macmillan

           1981 V. Barry, ed., Ethics, Wadsworth

           1982 M. Bayles, ed., Right Conduct, Random House

           1992 B. Moore & R. Stewart, eds. Moral Philosophy, Mayfield

           1994 E. Rubin, ed., The Abortion Controversy, Greenwood Publishing

            2001 M.Valdez, ed., Controversias sobre el aborto, Instituto de Investigaciones Filosoficas

1968 "Conditions," in The Journal of Philosophy, June 13 (LXV, 12), 355-64



1991 Robert Brown, Analyzing Love in Philosophy & Phenomenological Research, (LI,1), 244-45

1984 L.W. Sumner, Abortion and Moral Theory in Philosophical Review, (XCIII,1), 97-100

1983 Alan Donagan, The Theory of Morality in Nous, May, 303-08

1977 Alan White, Modal Thinking in Philosophical Review, (LXXXVI,2), 250-54

1975 Stephen Schiffer, Meaning in Philosophical Review, (LXXXIV,2), 267-70

1972 Nelson Goodman, Problems and Projects in Commentary, (54,1), 96-7



1969-71 "Understanding the Abortion Argument," Princeton; Columbia; Vassar; North Carolina (Chapel Hill); Northwestern; Indiana (Bloomington); Massachusetts            (Amherst);Vanderbilt; Illinois (Urbana); Oregon

1971 "Comments on "Police as Ambiguous Agents," Western Division APA

1971-72 "The Importance of Being Human," Conference on Methods in Philosophy and the Sciences, New School for Social Research; Society for Ethical and Legal Philosophy

1972-73 "Inherent Worth and Moral Status," NYU; Rockefeller

1972 "Is Envy a Moral Vice?," CUNY Graduate Center

1974-75 "Philosophy on Humanity," Tufts; Society for Ethical and Legal Philosophy; Notre Dame Conference on Abortion

1974 "Are the Police Necessary?," National Symposium on the Humanities and the Police, American; Houston

1975 "Moral Respect and Christian Agape," Notre Dame

1975 "The Need For Self Respect," Brown

1975 "Misunderstanding the Abortion Argument," Conference on Abortion, SUNY Buffalo Law School

1976 "Recent Developments in Moral Philosophy," Conference on the Teaching of Philosophy, Union

1976-77 "What is the Meaning of "What is the meaning of life?"?," Kentucky; Carnegie Mellon; Society for Ethical & Legal Philosophy

1977 "Capital Punishment," S&H Lecture, Somerset College

1978 "The Psychologic of Punishment," Pittsburgh & Carnegie Mellon; Society for Ethical & Legal Philosophy

1979 "The Value of Values Education," 3 lectures, Westmoreland County Community College

1979 "In Defense of Speciesism," Eastern Division APA

1979 "Do I Exist?," Clark

1979 "Understanding the Question of Life's Meaning," Clark

1980 "Reflections on "Police Restraint", Conference on Ethics, Public Policy and Criminal Justice, Delaware, Carnegie Mellon

1981 "Preferring Punishment Over Provisions for Victims," Colloquium on Victims of Crime, Pace

1981 "The Social Responsibility of Scientists," Pittsburgh

1981 "Respecting Rights and Persons," Conference on Human Rights, Florida State

1981 "An Incoherence in Utilitarianism," Carnegie Mellon

1983-84 "Understanding Blackmun's Argument: The Reasoning in Roe v. Wade," Conference on Abortion, Hampshire; Houston

1983 "Understanding Retribution," Society for Ethical & Legal Philosophy; Houston

1986 "Justification," Israel Colloquium, Tel Aviv

1986 "”Justification" and "Right"," Conference on Philosophy and Linguistics, Tel Aviv

1988 "Explaining Justification," Houston

1988-89 "Applying Ethical Theory," Bowling Green State; Houston; Moral & Political Philosophy Society

1989 "Distinguishing Justification from Proof," Long Beach State

1990 "The Morality of Judgment," plenary address, Conference on Moral Philosophy in the Public Domain, British Columbia; Moral & Political Philosophy Society

1990 ""Judge Not! Condemn Not!"?," Long Beach State

1990 "Who Are You To Judge?," Fireside Forum Lecture, Long Beach State

1991 "Comment on "In Time of War"," Long Beach State

1991 "Comment on "Minding the Body"," Long Beach State

1991 "Do Philosophers Know Anything?," Long Beach State

1992 "Truth, Goodman and Rightness Reconceived," Long Beach State

1992 "Socratic Scepticism," Pomona

1992 "Outline of A Grammar of Reasons," Long Beach State

1993 "Analyticity and Facticity," Long Beach State

1993 "Truth, Facticity, and Rightness," UC Davis

1993 "Analyticity: A Nonepistemic Critique," Long Beach State

1994 "Campbell on Frankfort on Freedom," Western Division APA

1994 "Right, Reasons and Justification," Queensland

1994 "Condemning Condemning," Queensland

1995 "Analyticity: Ambiguities & Antinomies," Irvine

1995 "Who are You to Judge?," Chico State

1996-7 "The Antinomy of Synonymity," Texas (Austin); Notre Dame; Syracuse; Illinois (Urbana); Massachusetts (Amherst); Maryland (College Park); Wayne State; Riverside; Florida State; Colorado (Boulder); Houston; Santa Barbara

1996-7 "Conceptualizing Condemning," Central Division APA; Colorado (Boulder); Kansas State; Potsdam; College of New Jersey; Episcopalian Divinity School; Auburn; Redlands; New Mexico; American; Maryland (Baltimore)

1997 "The Right to Judge Others," Tulane; Duke; Florida

1998 "Identity Syntax," 20th World Congress of Philosophy, Ontology Section

1998 "Translation, Quotation and Truth" 20th World Congress of Philosophy, Philosophy of Language Section

1998 "Distinguishing Mathematics from Logic," 20th World Congress of Philosophy, Mathematics Section

1999 "Translating Logic," Irvine

2000 "Meaning as Explanation," Conference of the Philosophical Society of South Africa

2000 "Sentence Meaning and Mathematics," Irvine

2000 "Sentence Meaning," Society for Exact Philosophy

2001 "Teaching Ethical Relativism," US Naval Academy

2001 "Quoting and Denoting," Irvine

2002 "Favoring Our Fellow Humans," Agnes Scott College

2002 "Thinking Outside Pandora’s Box," US Naval Academy

2003 "How to Reason About the Morality of Abortion" Agnes Scott College

2004 "The Real Nature and Rationality of Speciesism," Georgia Tech

2004 "Slandering Speciesism," Georgia Philosophical Society

2004 "The Relevance of Speciesism to Life Sciences Policies", Conference on Ethics & Life Sciences, (Delaware)

2004 "Quotations, Displays & Autonomes," Georgia Philosophical Society

2005 "The Moral Inequality of Professional Officers," Joint Services Conference on Professional Ethics (Washington, DC), US Naval Academy, Atlanta Analytic Study Group

2005 "Quotations, Displays & Autonomes," Symposium Paper, Pacific Div APA

2005 "Understanding Speciesism," Conference on Value Inquiry (LSU)

2005 "Slandering Speciesism," Colloquium Paper, Central Div APA

2005 "Forms, Facts and Truths," “On Denoting” Conference (McMaster); Georgia Philosophical Society

2005 "Signs of Speech," Society for Exact Philosophy (Toronto)

2005 "Translating Quotations and Displays," International Maastricht-Lodz Colloquium (Lodz, Poland)

2005 "Misunderstanding Speciesism," Lund (Sweden)

2005 "The Moral Significance of Military Professionalization," International Peace Research Institute (Oslo, Norway)

2005 "Empowering our Military Conscience," GA Tech Discussion Group

2006 "On the Moral Equality of Military Personnel," Joint Service Conference on Professional Ethics (Washington, DC) Panel with Jeff McMahan and Col. Dan Zupan

2009 “Comment on Paul Saka’s ‘Acts of Quotation’, APA Central Division Convention

2012 "Meaning as Explanation," Houston


2005-06                                    President, Georgia Philosophical Society

2004 -05                    Vice-President, Georgia Philosophical Society

2001-03                                     Director, USNA EAC Colloquium Series

2001-03                      Chair, USNA Ethics Across the Curriculum Working Group

1993-95, 1996-99     President, Fiesta Terrace Homeowners Association

1984-98                                     Founder/President, AGREE Co

1977-82                                     Director, Philosophy Program, Carnegie Mellon University



2004    to State University System of Georgia (web based Introductory Philosophy course)

1981    to U.S. Senate on S.158 (to deem that a human fetus is a human being)

1980    to EVIST grant study of Allegheny County Air Pollution Control Statutes

1978    to Guttmacher Institute on Hyde Amendment (federal funding of abortion)


PUBLICATION REFEREE: Ethics, Nous, Synthese, Oxford U. Press, Cornell U. Press; MIT Press.



1991    California Council for Humanities, CSU Fullerton Conference on Environmental Ethics

1982    NEH Public Library Program



1993    Pacific APA, "Justification in Ethics"

1991    Pacific APA, "Ethical Theory"

1984    Eastern APA, "Abortion

1981    Pacific APA, "Formalist Ethics"

1980    Midwest APA, "Moral Decisions"

1971    Eastern APA, "Equality"



2002    1 Pasadena, CA radio show on the morality of war

1992    10 notes on moral dilemmas for Long Beach Press Telegram

1984    1 Houston, TX TV show on abortion

1972    1 national TV & 4 NYC & Philadelphia radio shows on abortion


COMMITTEES (since 1989)

2005- --    APA Committee on Public Philosophy

2003- --    Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta Bioethics Committee

2001-03    USNA Midshipman Development Board

2001-03    USNA Ethics/Character Assessment Project

1992-94    American Association for Applied Ethics Executive Board

1992-94    CSULB Advisory Board for Ethics Conference

1993-94    CSULB Philosophy Department Library Committee

1991-94    CSULB University Affirmative Action Advisory Committee

1989-94    VA Medical Center, Long Beach, Bioethics Committee

1989-94    CSULB University Ethics Committee

1992-93    CSULB Philosophy Department Graduate Program Committee

1990-92    Chair, CSULB Philosophy Department Philosophical Activities Committee

1989-90    CSULB Philosophy Department Curriculum Committee



2003- --  Georgia Philosophical Society

2002- --   Joint Services Conference on Professional Ethics

1992-94    American Association of Applied Ethics

1989-97     Moral & Political Philosophy Society, Orange County, CA

1987-89     Baylor College of Medicine Medical Ethics Research Group

1971-84     Society for Ethical and Legal Philosophy

1969- --    American Philosophical Association